Domestic violence refers to the abusive actions that members of a household inflict to one another with an aim of gaining control over them. To be specific, domestic violence reflects mainly on criminal actions, which include physical assault actions such as hitting and shoving, sexual abuse, and even excessive stalking. This research aims to observe, evaluate, and analyze the relevant features of domestic violence in the pursuit of revealing the adverse impact of the effects of domestic violence upon women, children, and the entire society in general. For the success of this research, there will be use of primary sources of information and critical analysis of all the secondary sources of information. This research will incorporate a fusion of research designs to optimize its success. The samples used will effectively represent the general population. The research will incorporate the use of various data collection techniques to increase the applicability of the research results. In the pursuit of carrying out this research, there will be a strict observation and adherence to ethics.
Almost none of the behaviors considered today, as domestic violence appeared to be crime before the late nineteenth century: in the 1970’s (Erez, 2002). However, owing to current controversies concerning the approach of the justice system towards domestic violence, there are now laws enforced to tackle the criminal aspect of domestic violence. In this research, the efforts will drive towards answering this question, “what is the extent of domestic violence crimes, especially women battering and sexual abuse, towards the health of the violence victims?” In the pursuit of answering this question in during the research, certain variables will apply. The independent variables will include mainly spouse household battering and sexual abuse. The dependent variable is automatically the health of the victims after the violence. In short, this research emanates from a strong belief that domestic violence leads to severe and adverse health complications to victims of this crime.
Background and Literature Review
The issue of domestic violence cuts across almost all countries in today’s world. Especially in the recent past, there have been quite a number of upcoming activities and campaigns to increase the awareness and reduce the practice of this worldwide vice. On January 23, 2013, Center for Survivor Agency and Justice hosted a webinar entitled, “Foreclosure Advocacy for Domestic Violence Survivors.” The presenter, Karen Tjapkes, focused on advocacy strategies to keep considers wile representing a survivor of domestic violence undergoing foreclosure.
In the year 2001, the American Psychological Association also conducted a research and released the findings in a report entitled, “Domestic Violence in the Lives of Children: The Future of Research, Intervention, and Social Policy.” This report examines the policies needed to carry out future research on domestic violence.
During the 2004 Child and Youth Law Conference, Judge Jan Dooque presented a paper entitled, “Domestic Violence: Reviewing the Needs of Children.” In this paper, he suggested that although legislation on domestic violence crime is a positive move, the applicability of this legislation is worth review.
In August 10, 2002, the British Medical Journal published an article entitled, “Should health professionals screen women for domestic violence? Systematic review.” This aimed at assessing acceptability, and effectiveness of domestic violence on women and how it would help in controlling the extent of domestic violence in general.
All these efforts helped in creating awareness against domestic violence. They particularly helped the victims to understand that they are not alone; otherwise, this would not be a critical issue attracting such attention. However, none of them gave a straightforward means of stopping this vice. The best they offer is a method to console the domestic violence victims without establishing the real root of this problem.
Before the commencement of any research, it is important to take time to decide on what design it will assume. It is worth noting that there are three designs available for any research to form a foundation. The choice and the applicability of each depend on the kind of research and the characteristics of each of three research designs. The three research paradigms are namely: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research. The quantitative method emphasizes mainly on quantity data collection. It requires much data from as many sources as possible. The qualitative research on the other hand lays emphasis on quality data that is directly relevant and reliable to serve a particular purpose. As the name suggests, the mixed research design incorporates the use of both the qualitative and quantitative designs (Creswell, 2003, p. 208).
For the purpose of research on domestic violence and its effects the health of the victims; much quality data is necessary. In the light of this, the most relevant research design in this kind of research is the mixed research design. The relevance of this research design in carrying out this research shows up in many ways. To start with, this method is both inductive and deductive. It also helps in understanding the predictability in the view of human behavior. Because it incorporates both the qualitative and the quantitative techniques, it is able to meet multiple objectives: quality and quantity.
The mixed research design also has a divergent focus upon the independent variables included in the research’s problem statement. It also emphasizes the observation of the problem from different angles and contexts thus minimizing the presence of bias. The diverse nature of the mixed research design would also be applicable in this research since the nature of data it gives provides the advantage of mixed variables, different words, and varied images. Domestic violence is a critical issue and is quite common in one way or another in almost all households. In the light of this, the mixed design optimally applies in carrying out this research due to its capability to provide a wide range of results.
Sampling and Sampling Techniques
For research purposes, it is important to note that the entire population cannot apply. The researcher’s population includes a sample aggregate of the entire population. It is thus very important to define the sample population in a manner that accurately defines the need of the research. In this research, sampling will be important in rendering the aspect of representativeness. The target group shall as much as possible reflect the general population. With respect to the sampling theory, there will be definite analysis of sampling units and sampling frames (Levy & Lemeshow, 2011, p. 19). Owing to the fact that the research stands on the mixed design, the sample size will be big to incorporate the big sample target.
This research is specific in nature and it is about a very personal matter in the society. In the light of the above, the appropriate sampling technique applicable in for this research is the non-probability (non-random) sampling, to be more specific, purposive, or judgmental sampling technique (Babbie, 2010, p. 193). This is appropriate since in this research, a sample’s selection will rely on the knowledge of the population elements. This will enhance the importance of this research by collecting the important data and information from relatively the best options.
Data Collection Techniques
Irrespective of the research design paradigm applied, one or a few data collection techniques are included in carrying out a research (Connaway & Powell, 2010, p. 145). In fact, right after stating the research problem and deciding on the research design, follows the deciding of the method of data collection to use for the research (Kothari, 2008, p. 95). The main reason as to why this is important is the fact that data used in a research is important and so the sources and acquisition methods matter a lot. It is worth noting that there are primary sources of data, which include observing, use of questionnaires, field research, and filling of forms. There are also secondary sources, which rely on fetching information from already collected data. In conducting this research on the extent of domestic violence to health of the victims, a diverse data collection strategy will be necessary. Initially, secondary sources of information will be necessary to provide the relevant information on this issue. Data from newspapers and journals will help in identifying the best target group and thus generating an applicable sample. After receiving that information, use of questionnaires will help to acquire data from the selected sample population. Both open-ended and closed questionnaires apply in this case. The advantage of using the questionnaires in this kind of research is because they are flexible and help in maximizing the amount of information from the research sources. In addition, there will be picture taking to provide visual data concerning the visible results of domestic violence.
There are various considerations, whose taking, will lead to the efficiency and effectiveness of the findings of this research. It is important that this research end up successful in proving what it purports. It is also vital for this research to have a benefit once it is complete. In this respect, there are considerations to consider that will lead to the ultimate success of this research. To start with, all individuals who will take place in carrying out this research must have the basic education required to carry out such an activity. In addition, another requirement will be good social and interactive skills to ensure maximum acceptance in the by the members of the societies in which the research will be conducted. All the materials used for this research must undergo verification. The questionnaires especially will undergo critical scrutiny to ensure that they do not contain questions that might trigger negative response from those filling them in. Before starting the actual research, it will be necessary to ensure the presence of all requirements so as not to disrupt the research once it starts.
As a core aspect of dealing with the community, this research will uphold ethics to the highest level. This research will follow the principles of the justice and fairness theory of ethics. All in the participants will receive just treatment. Their confidential information will remain in privacy. They will participate on their own terms and will be open to terminate their participation at any time if they so wish.
- Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
- Connaway, L. S., & Powell, R. R. (2010). Basic Research Methods for Librarians (5th Edition ed.). Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
- Erez, E. (2002). Domestic Violence and the Criminal Justice System: An Overview. Domestic Violence and Criminal Justice , 7.
- Kothari, C. R. (2008). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.
- Levy, P. S., & Lemeshow, S. (2011). Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications (4th Edition ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
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